Infertility and sterility are often spoken of as synonyms, however they are different: sterility is the inability to carry a pregnancy to term (to have a live child) that is, the woman is capable of becoming pregnant, but not of her offspring surviving, and the infertility alludes to the impossibility of conceiving. It is considered that there is a problem sterility or infertility when it has not been possible to have a living child, after a year of sexual relations with the purpose of procreation.
Both in men and women, its causes are multiple, and the causes of the inability to have children in the studies that couples undergo may even be unknown.
The factors that may be cause of female infertility They are multiple, among which we highlight: hormonal alterations, alterations in the fallopian tubes, alteration in the cervix, factors related to lifestyle (stress, poor diet…), alterations in the uterus….
In women, one of the factors that may influence their ability or not to become pregnant is a disease called endometriosis. It is thought that between 30-50% of women who are unable to have children suffer from it to some degree.
The cause of endometriosis is likely to be the migration of endometrial cells from their normal location (within the uterus) to other locations. Sometimes they stick to the ovaries or other pelvic organs. These clusters of endometrial cells out of their normal place cause endometriomas, which have the ability to shed cyclically, just like they do in the uterus. causing bleeding (menstruation).
Symptoms of endometriosis range from being an asymptomatic process even severe, disabling pain during menstruation, going through long and heavy periods or pain during sexual intercourse. There is no correlation between symptoms and the degree of the disease. Sometimes it is recommended to operate before starting fertility treatment.
1. Endometriosis can block, move, cover or alter the relationship between the important organs of fertility such as the tubes, ovary and uterus, since it generates adhesions that can obstruct the tubes.
2. There is a hypothesis that endometriosis is a cause of infertility by producing povulation or hormonal symptoms.
3. Because it generates problems embryo implantation, since some women with endometriosis have a deficiency of proteins called integrins, necessary for implantation.
4. Produces toImmune disorders. Some of the immune response mechanisms such as the production of antibodies (IgA and IgG) and defense cells (lymphocytes) are increased in the endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis, causing a decrease in implantation capacity. Furthermore, this increased production of antibodies causes some women with endometriosis to develop autoimmune diseases.
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